“For although almost all churches throughout the world celebrate the sacred mysteries on the sabbath of every week, yet the Christians of Alexandria and at Rome, on account of some ancient tradition, have ceased to do this.”
Christians were still observing the seventh-day Sabbath clear down in the second half of the fourth century! The evidence of church documents and the testimony of contemporary historians lead to that unmistakable conclusion.
The seventh-day Sabbath of the Ten Commandments survived, in spite of theological arguments, anti-Jewish prejudice, and the decree of an emperor.
Historical sources reveal that the first-century Christians did not shift the day of worship from the seventh day of the week to the first day. The replacement of the Sabbath with Sunday did not take place until sometime during the first half of the second century, and then only in certain places. This change seems to have been driven by anti-Semitism and the need for Christians to distinguish themselves as separate from Jews.
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